graphx.h

#include <graphx.h>

The graphx library implements efficient graphics routines from everything to drawing sprites, shapes, and tilemaps. This allows a programmer to easily add quality graphics to their program without needing to worry about the low-level implementation details.

Default Palette

This is the default palette used by graphx. This palette can be modified at any time with different colors.

../_images/graphx_palette.png

Clipped vs. Unclipped

The graphx library contains many similar functions, e.g. gfx_Sprite and gfx_Sprite_NoClip.

As the name suggests, the _NoClip variant of a routine performs no clipping. Clipping is the process of checking if parts (or all) of an object to be drawn are outside the window bounds and skipping drawing these out of bounds parts. This checking process takes time. If you can be sure that an object to be drawn is fully within the bounds of the screen, the clipping process can be safely skipped by using the _NoClip variant of the routine.

Do not use the _NoClip variant of a routine if you can not be sure that the object to be drawn is fully within the bounds of the screen. Doing so may result in corrupted graphics or memory. This is because the screen itself is represented as a region of memory. If you draw outside the bounds of that region, you risk overwriting other, possibly important data. This can cause corruption, and can cause crashes.

Partial Redraw

Partial redraw applies when you are moving a sprite against a static background. Sometimes, it can be too slow to redraw the entire screen just to move a small portion of it. Partial redraw saves a copy of what is behind the sprite, and draws it when the sprite moves again. For example, in a simple Pong game, if a white ball is drawn on a black background, instead of redrawing the entire screen each frame, you can redraw a small region around the ball to erase it.

Sample Implementation

A brief summation of the paritial redraw using graphx is:

  • Allocate space for a temporary sprite.

  • When the background is drawn, a small copy of it is saved to the temporary spirte.

  • After the background is drawn, the sprite is drawn as normal.

  • Upon movement, the sprite is erased using the temporary sprite and the coordinates are updated.

  • The section of background with the updated coordinates is stored to the temporary sprite and the process repeated.

This is implemented using somewhat pseudo code:

int x = 0;
int y = 0;
gfx_sprite_t *behind_sprite = gfx_MallocSprite(SPRITE_WIDTH, SPRITE_HEIGHT);

// ...draw the background code  here...

// set initial sprite state
gfx_GetSprite(behind_sprite, x, y);
gfx_TransparentSprite(sprite, x, y);

do {
    // if we don't need to move, loop
    if (no_move) continue;

    // clear out the old sprite
    gfx_Sprite(behind_sprite, x, y);

    // ...movement code here...
    // updates x and y

    // get the new background and draw the moved sprite
    gfx_GetSprite(behind_sprite, x, y);
    gfx_TransparentSprite(sprite, x, y);
} while (moving);

Buffering Graphics

Buffering is a fancy method in order to prevent graphics from being displayed as they are being drawn. It is used primarily to eliminate visible draws which can make an application look amateurish, sluggish, or appear to flicker.

When graphics routines are buffered, they draw offscreen (nonvisible) portion of memory, so the user doesn’t see the partial drawing. This is accomplished in one line with the following routine, usually placed directly after calling gfx_Begin():

gfx_SetDrawBuffer();

The next part is deciding how the drawn graphics should be displayed to the user.

Method 1 (Copying/Blitting)

The first method is to copy (commonly referred to as ‘blitting’) whatever is in the buffer to the visible screen. The simplest way is to call:

gfx_BlitBuffer();

Which will copy/blit the entire buffer to the screen. Alternatively, gfx_BlitLines() and gfx_BlitRectangle() and the other variations are used to specify the blitting bounds. This flickers less than normal drawing because having many small copy operations (like drawing sprites) is slower than one large copy operation (blitting the buffer to the screen). This means that a blit operation is less likely to get caught by a screen refresh than a bunch of sprite operations.

Method 2 (Buffer Swapping)

Buffer swapping swaps the visible screen with an offscreen buffer, leaving the contents on both. Whatever is currently on the screen will become the graphics buffer, and whatever is in the graphics buffer will be displayed on the screen. The code to swap the visible screen with nonvisibile buffer is:

gfx_SwapDraw();

What actually happens is shown below, ‘graphics’ is simply where the graphics routines will draw to.

../_images/graphx_buffer.png

This method is really useful when you are redrawing all of the graphics each frame, and requires more work to handle if you only wish to do a partial redraw.

Pros and Cons

Buffering is slower than drawing to the main screen, but greatly improves perceived performance which is extremely important in graphical applications.

Blitting: Easy, simply a copy to the screen.

Swapping: Requires more programmer management (sometimes), faster than blitting.

Creating Sprites

Sprites are images that contain pixel data that can be drawn via graphx functions. The CE C Toolchain includes convimg, which is used to convert images in PNG or similar formats into binary data that can be used by graphx.

Getting Started

We are going to begin by taking a look at an example program to familiarize ourselves with how to run and configure convimg.

Open the graphx/sprites example, and navigate to the src/gfx folder.

The image oiram.png is the sprite that wants to be converted, and convimg.yaml is used to configure how the image should be converted.

Open convimg.yaml in a text editor, which contains the below lines. Run the command convimg --help. This outputs the readme for convimg, and what each of the various commands do. You can also find the readme online, available here.

palettes:
  - name: global_palette
    fixed-entries:
      - color: {index: 0, r: 255, g: 0, b: 128}
      - color: {index: 1, r: 255, g: 255, b: 255}
    images: automatic

converts:
  - name: sprites
    palette: global_palette
    transparent-color-index: 0
    images:
      - oiram.png

outputs:
  - type: c
    include-file: gfx.h
    palettes:
      - global_palette
    converts:
      - sprites

Converting Sprites

Converting sprites requires you to type make gfx instead of make. Any time you change an image or the convimg.yaml, you will need to execute this command.

../_images/graphx_sprites.png

You can now make the project as you would any of the other examples.

Explanation of output

Sprites used in the graphx library are allowed 8 bits per pixel (aka 8bpp), which allows for a total of 256 colors. As shown in the previous image, convimg was able to create a suitable palette for oiram.png with 15 colors. Once the palette is generated, convimg outputs C headers and source files that are automatically picked up by the toolchain and compiled into the final program.

API Documentation

graphx contains optimized graphics operations and routines.

The below example template shows the best graphx buffer usage pattern:

// Standard #includes omitted

bool partial_redraw;

// Implement us!
void begin();
void end();
bool step();
void draw();

void main() {
    begin(); // No rendering allowed!
    gfx_Begin();
    gfx_SetDrawBuffer(); // Draw to the buffer to avoid rendering artifacts

    while (step()) { // No rendering allowed in step!
        if (partial_redraw) // Only want to redraw part of the previous frame?
            gfx_BlitScreen(); // Copy previous frame as a base for this frame
        draw(); // As little non-rendering logic as possible
        gfx_SwapDraw(); // Queue the buffered frame to be displayed
    }

    gfx_End();
    end();
}

Author

Matt “MateoConLechuga” Waltz

Author

Jacob “jacobly” Young

Author

Zachary “Runer112” Wassall

Author

Patrick “tr1p1ea” Prendergast

Author

”grosged”

Defines

gfx_MallocSprite(width, height)

Dynamically allocates memory for a sprite using malloc.

width and height will be set in the sprite. Returns NULL upon allocation failure.

See

gfx_AllocSprite

Note

If not used in a dynamic context and width and height are static, consider statically allocating the sprite instead with gfx_UninitedSprite() or gfx_TempSprite().

Parameters
  • width – Sprite width.

  • height – Sprite height.

Returns

A pointer to the allocated sprite, or NULL if the allocation failed.

gfx_UninitedSprite(name, width, height)

Statically allocates uninitialized memory for a sprite.

Declares a gfx_sprite_t * with the given name pointing to the allocated memory. width and height will not be set in the sprite, unlike gfx_TempSprite().

See

gfx_MallocSprite

Warning

If used outside of a function body, the memory will be allocated in the global uninitialized data segment (BSS). If used inside a function body, the memory will be allocated on the stack. If the sprite is sufficiently large, usage inside a function body will overflow the stack, so it is recommended that this normally be used outside of a function body.

Parameters
  • name – Name of declared gfx_sprite_t *.

  • width – Sprite width.

  • height – Sprite height.

gfx_TempSprite(name, width, height)

Statically allocates memory for a sprite.

Declares a gfx_sprite_t * with the given name pointing to the allocated memory. width and height will be set in the sprite, unlike gfx_UninitedSprite().

Attention

Due to width and height being set, the memory will be allocated in the initialized data segment. If the compiled program is not compressed, then this could be a serious source of bloat and gfx_UninitedSprite() should be preferred.

See

gfx_MallocSprite

Parameters
  • name – Name of declared gfx_sprite_t *.

  • width – Sprite width.

  • height – Sprite height.

gfx_AllocRLETSprite(data_size, malloc_routine)

Dynamically allocates memory for a sprite with RLE transparency.

Allocates the memory with malloc_routine. Returns NULL upon allocation failure.

data_size is the maximum predicted/calculated size of the sprite data (excluding the width and height bytes) that will be stored in the allocated sprite. Sprite data size could be up to (width + 1) * height * 3 / 2 bytes in the worst case, in which pixels horizontally alternate between non-transparent and transparent and each row begins with a non-transparent pixel. But if the average length of a horizontal transparent run is at least 2, then the sprite data will be no larger than (width + 1) * height bytes. The exact data size necessary is 2 * hr + nont + rnont - ret bytes, where:

hr: Number of horizontal transparent runs.

nont: Number of non-transparent runs.

rnont: Number of rows beginning with a non-transparent pixel.

rbnont: Number of rows beginning with a non-transparent pixel.

ret: Number of rows ending with a transparent pixel.

Remark

If using malloc as the malloc_routine, gfx_MallocRLETSprite() can be used as a shortcut.

Note

If not used in a dynamic context and data_size is static, consider statically allocating the sprite instead with gfx_UninitedRLETSprite() or gfx_TempRLETSprite().

Parameters
  • data_size – (Maximum) sprite data size.

  • malloc_routine – Malloc implementation to use.

Returns

A pointer to the allocated sprite, or NULL if the allocation failed..

gfx_MallocRLETSprite(data_size)

Dynamically allocates memory for a sprite with RLE transparency using malloc.

data_size is the size to allocate for sprite data; see gfx_AllocRLETSprite() for information. Returns NULL upon allocation failure.

See

gfx_AllocRLETSprite

Note

If not used in a dynamic context and data_size is static, consider statically allocating the sprite instead with gfx_UninitedRLETSprite() or gfx_TempRLETSprite().

Parameters
  • data_size – (Maximum) sprite data size.

Returns

A pointer to the allocated sprite, or NULL if the allocation failed.

gfx_UninitedRLETSprite(name, data_size)

Statically allocates uninitialized memory for a sprite with RLE transparency.

Declares a gfx_rletsprite_t * with the given name pointing to the allocated memory. data_size is the size to allocate for sprite data; see gfx_AllocRLETSprite() for information.

See

gfx_MallocRLETSprite

Warning

If used outside of a function body, the memory will be allocated in the global uninitialized data segment (BSS). If used inside a function body, the memory will be allocated on the stack. If the sprite is sufficiently large, usage inside a function body will overflow the stack, so it is recommended that this normally be used outside of a function body.

Parameters
  • name – Name of declared gfx_rletsprite_t *.

  • data_size – (Maximum) sprite data size.

gfx_palette

Used for accessing the lcd palette directly.

This consists of 256 entries, each 2 bytes in size for a total of 512 bytes.

gfx_vram

Array of the LCD RAM.

Total of 153600 bytes in size.

See

gfx_vbuffer

gfx_vbuffer

Array of the current drawing buffer.

Total of 76800 bytes in size.

See

gfx_vram.

gfx_SetTile(tilemap, x_offset, y_offset, value)

Sets a particular tile’s value given an initialized tilemap structure and pixel offsets.

Parameters
  • tilemap – Pointer to initialized tilemap structure.

  • x_offset – Offset in pixels from the left of the tilemap.

  • y_offset – Offset in pixels from the top of the tilemap.

  • value – Value to set tile to.

gfx_GetTile(tilemap, x_offset, y_offset)

Gets a particular tile’s value given an initialized tilemap structure and pixel offsets.

Parameters
  • tilemap – Pointer to an initialized tilemap structure.

  • x_offset – Offset in pixels from the left of the tilemap.

  • y_offset – Offset in pixels from the top of the tilemap.

gfx_SetTileMapped(tilemap, col, row, value)

Sets a particular tile’s value given an initialized tilemap structure and mapped offsets.

Parameters
  • tilemap – Pointer to initialized tilemap structure.

  • col – Column of tile in tilemap.

  • row – Row of tile in tilemap.

  • value – Value to set tile to.

gfx_GetTileMapped(tilemap, col, row)

Gets a particular tile’s value given an initialized tilemap structure and mapped offsets.

Parameters
  • tilemap – Pointer to an initialized tilemap structure.

  • col – Column of tile in tilemap.

  • row – Row of tile in tilemap.

gfx_Circle_NoClip(x, y, radius)

Draws an unclipped circle outline.

This is measured from the top left origin of the screen. Performs faster than using gfx_Circle, but can cause corruption if used outside the bounds of the screen.

Parameters
  • x – X coordinate.

  • y – Y coordinate.

  • radius – The radius of the circle.

gfx_SetDrawBuffer()

Makes the subsequent graphx drawing routines act on the buffer instead of on the screen.

gfx_SetDrawScreen()

Makes the subsequent graphx drawing routines act on the screen instead of a buffer.

gfx_BlitScreen()

Copies the contents of the screen to the buffer.

gfx_BlitBuffer()

Copies the contents of the buffer to the screen.

gfx_GetSprite_NoClip(sprite_buffer, x, y)

Grabs the background behind an unclipped sprite.

This is useful for partial redraw.

Note

sprite_buffer must be pointing to a large enough buffer to hold (width * height + 2) number of bytes.

Parameters
  • sprite_buffer – Buffer used to store grabbed sprite.

  • x – X coordinate to grab sprite.

  • y – Y coordinate to grab sprite.

Returns

A pointer to sprite_buffer.

gfx_RotatedTransparentSprite_NoClip(sprite, x, y, angle)

Helper macro to only perform rotation using gfx_RotatedScaledTransparentSprite_NoClip.

See

gfx_RotatedScaledTransparentSprite_NoClip.

Parameters
  • sprite – Input sprite to rotate/scale.

  • x – X coordinate position.

  • y – Y coordinate position.

  • angle – 256 position angular integer.

gfx_RotatedSprite_NoClip(sprite, x, y, angle)

Helper macro to only perform rotation using gfx_RotatedScaledSprite_NoClip.

See

gfx_RotatedScaledTransparentSprite_NoClip.

Parameters
  • sprite – Input sprite to rotate/scale.

  • x – X coordinate position.

  • y – Y coordinate position.

  • angle – 256 position angular integer.

gfx_RotateSprite(sprite_in, sprite_out, angle)

Helper macro to only perform rotation using gfx_RotateScaleSprite.

See

gfx_RotateScaleSprite.

Note

sprite_in and sprite_out cannot be the same. Ensure sprite_out is allocated.

Parameters
  • sprite_in – Input sprite to rotate.

  • sprite_out – Pointer to where rotated sprite will be stored.

  • angle – 256 position angular integer.

Returns

A pointer to sprite_out.

gfx_ConvertMallocRLETSprite(sprite_in)

Converts a sprite with normal transparency to a sprite with RLE transparency, allocating the exact amount of necessary space for the converted sprite using malloc.

Width and height will be set in the converted sprite. Returns NULL upon allocation failure.

The transparent color index in the input sprite is controlled by gfx_SetTransparentColor().

Remark

A gfx_sprite_t can be converted into an appropriately large, already-allocated gfx_rletsprite_t using gfx_ConvertToRLETSprite().

See

gfx_ConvertFromRLETSprite.

Parameters
  • sprite_in – Input sprite with normal transparency.

Returns

A newly allocated converted sprite with RLE transparency.

gfx_RGBTo1555(r, g, b)

Converts an RGB value to a palette color.

Conversion is not 100% perfect, but is quite close.

gfx_CheckRectangleHotspot(master_x, master_y, master_width, master_height, test_x, test_y, test_width, test_height)

Checks if a rectangle intersects with another rectangle.

gfx_GetZX7SpriteWidth(zx7_sprite)
gfx_GetZX7SpriteHeight(zx7_sprite)
gfx_GetZX7SpriteSize(zx7_sprite)

Calculates the amount of memory that a zx7-compressed sprite would use when decompressed.

Sprite size is calculated as 2 + (width * height).

ZX7 data always starts with a literal, which is the sprite’s width. The next byte contains flags, which indicates if the following bytes are literals or codewords. If bit 7 of that is zero, the byte immediately after it is a literal and can be read in as sprite height. Otherwise, the bits that follows indicates a codeword, making sprite height the same as width.

Parameters
  • zx7_sprite – ZX7-compressed sprite

Returns

Size, in bytes, of decompressed sprite

Enums

enum gfx_mode_t

Stores operating modes of this library.

See

gfx_Begin.

Values:

enumerator gfx_8bpp

Enable 8 bits per pixel mode.

enum gfx_tilemap_type_t

Used for defining tile types.

See

gfx_tilemap_t.

Values:

enumerator gfx_tile_no_pow2

Use when the tile width/height is not a power of 2.

enumerator gfx_tile_2_pixel

Use when the tile width/height is 2 pixels.

enumerator gfx_tile_4_pixel

Use when the tile width/height is 4 pixels.

enumerator gfx_tile_8_pixel

Use when the tile width/height is 8 pixels.

enumerator gfx_tile_16_pixel

Use when the tile width/height is 16 pixels.

enumerator gfx_tile_32_pixel

Use when the tile width/height is 32 pixels.

enumerator gfx_tile_64_pixel

Use when the tile width/height is 64 pixels.

enumerator gfx_tile_128_pixel

Use when the tile width/height is 128 pixels.

enum gfx_location_t

Different locations routines can be drawn to.

Values:

enumerator gfx_screen

Screen.

enumerator gfx_buffer

Buffer.

enum gfx_text_options_t

Different available text modes.

Values:

enumerator gfx_text_clip

Text routines will clip against the defined clip window.

enumerator gfx_text_noclip

Default, text routines do not clip (much faster).

Functions

gfx_sprite_t *gfx_AllocSprite(uint8_t width, uint8_t height, void *(*malloc_routine)(size_t))

Dynamically allocates memory for a sprite.

Allocates the memory with malloc_routine. width and height will be set in the allocated sprite. Returns NULL upon allocation failure.

Remark

If using malloc as the malloc_routine, gfx_MallocSprite() can be used as a shortcut.

Note

If not used in a dynamic context and width and height are static, consider statically allocating the sprite instead with gfx_UninitedSprite() or gfx_TempSprite().

Parameters
  • width – Sprite width.

  • height – Sprite height.

  • malloc_routine – Malloc implementation to use.

Returns

A pointer to the allocated sprite.

void gfx_Begin()

Initializes the graphics library setup.

Among other things, this puts the screen in 8bpp mode, which is used for drawing.

void gfx_End(void)

Closes the graphics setup.

Restores the LCD to 16bpp and clears the screen. 16bpp is used by the OS, so if you don’t call this, the screen will look weird and won’t work right.

void gfx_Tilemap(const gfx_tilemap_t *tilemap, uint24_t x_offset, uint24_t y_offset)

Draws a tilemap given an initialized tilemap structure.

See

gfx_tilemap_t.

Parameters
  • tilemap – Pointer to initialized tilemap structure.

  • x_offset – Offset in pixels from the left of the tilemap.

  • y_offset – Offset in pixels from the top of the tilemap.

void gfx_Tilemap_NoClip(const gfx_tilemap_t *tilemap, uint24_t x_offset, uint24_t y_offset)

Draws an unclipped tilemap given an initialized tilemap structure.

See

gfx_tilemap_t.

Parameters
  • tilemap – Pointer to initialized tilemap structure.

  • x_offset – Offset in pixels from the left of the tilemap.

  • y_offset – Offset in pixels from the top of the tilemap.

void gfx_TransparentTilemap(const gfx_tilemap_t *tilemap, uint24_t x_offset, uint24_t y_offset)

Draws a transparent tilemap given an initialized tilemap structure.

See

gfx_tilemap_t.

Parameters
  • tilemap – Pointer to initialized tilemap structure.

  • x_offset – Offset in pixels from the left of the tilemap.

  • y_offset – Offset in pixels from the top of the tilemap.

void gfx_TransparentTilemap_NoClip(const gfx_tilemap_t *tilemap, uint24_t x_offset, uint24_t y_offset)

Draws an unclipped transparent tilemap given an initialized tilemap structure.

See

gfx_tilemap_t.

Parameters
  • tilemap – Pointer to initialized tilemap structure.

  • x_offset – Offset in pixels from the left of the tilemap.

  • y_offset – Offset in pixels from the top of the tilemap.

uint8_t *gfx_TilePtr(const gfx_tilemap_t *tilemap, uint24_t x_offset, uint24_t y_offset)

Gets a pointer to a particular tile given an initialized tilemap structure and pixel offsets.

Measurement is done from the actual tilemap, not the drawn offset location.

Parameters
  • tilemap – Pointer to initialized tilemap structure.

  • x_offset – Offset in pixels from the left of the tilemap.

  • y_offset – Offset in pixels from the top of the tilemap.

uint8_t *gfx_TilePtrMapped(const gfx_tilemap_t *tilemap, uint8_t col, uint8_t row)

Gets a pointer to a particular tile given an initialized tilemap structure and mapped offsets.

Parameters
  • tilemap – Pointer to an initialized tilemap structure.

  • col – Column of tile in tilemap.

  • row – Row of tile in tilemap.

uint8_t gfx_SetColor(uint8_t index)

Sets the color index that drawing routines will use.

This applies to lines, rectangles, circles, etc.

Parameters

index – Color index to set.

Returns

Previous set color index.

uint8_t gfx_SetTransparentColor(uint8_t index)

Sets the transparent index that drawing routines will use.

This currently applies to transparent sprites, both scaled and unscaled

Parameters

index – Transparent color index to set.

Returns

The previous transparent color index.

void gfx_SetDefaultPalette(gfx_mode_t mode)

Sets up the default palette for the given mode.

Parameters

mode – Palette to use.

void gfx_SetPalette(const void *palette, uint24_t size, uint8_t offset)

Sets entries in the palette.

Parameters
  • palette – Pointer to palette to set.

  • size – Size of palette in bytes.

  • offset – Palette index to insert at.

void gfx_FillScreen(uint8_t index)

Fills the screen with a given palette index.

Parameters

index – Color index to fill with.

void gfx_ZeroScreen(void)

Implements a faster version of gfx_FillScreen(0).

See

gfx_FillScreen.

void gfx_SetPixel(uint24_t x, uint8_t y)

Sets a pixel to the global color index.

This is measured from the top left origin of the screen. Pixels are only clipped within the screen boundaries

See

gfx_SetColor

Parameters
  • x – X coordinate location

  • y – Y coordinate location

uint8_t gfx_GetPixel(uint24_t x, uint8_t y)

Gets a pixel’s color index.

This is measured from the top left origin of the screen. Pixels are only clipped within the screen boundaries

Parameters
  • x – X coordinate location

  • y – Y coordinate location

void gfx_Line(int x0, int y0, int x1, int y1)

Draws a line.

This is measured from the top left origin of the screen.

Parameters
  • x0 – First X coordinate

  • y0 – First Y coordinate

  • x1 – Second X coordinate

  • y1 – Second Y coordinate

void gfx_Line_NoClip(uint24_t x0, uint8_t y0, uint24_t x1, uint8_t y1)

Draws an unclipped line.

This is measured from the top left origin of the screen. Performs faster than gfx_line, but can cause corruption if used outside the bounds of the screen.

Parameters
  • x0 – First X coordinate.

  • y0 – First Y coordinate.

  • x1 – Second X coordinate.

  • y1 – Second Y coordinate.

void gfx_HorizLine(int x, int y, int length)

Draws a horizontal line.

This is measured from the top left origin of the screen. Performs faster than using gfx_Line.

Parameters
  • x – X coordinate.

  • y – Y coordinate.

  • length – Length of line.

void gfx_HorizLine_NoClip(uint24_t x, uint8_t y, uint24_t length)

Draws an unclipped horizontal line.

This is measured from the top left origin of the screen. Performs faster than using gfx_Line, but can cause corruption if used outside the bounds of the screen.

Parameters
  • x – X coordinate.

  • y – Y coordinate.

  • length – Length of line.

void gfx_VertLine(int x, int y, int length)

Draws a vertical line.

This is measured from the top left origin of the screen. Performs faster than using gfx_Line

Parameters
  • x – X coordinate

  • y – Y coordinate

  • length – Length of line

void gfx_VertLine_NoClip(uint24_t x, uint8_t y, uint24_t length)

Draws an unclipped vertical line.

This is measured from the top left origin of the screen. Performs faster than using gfx_Line, but can cause corruption if used outside the bounds of the screen.

Parameters
  • x – X coordinate.

  • y – Y coordinate.

  • length – Length of line.

void gfx_Rectangle(int x, int y, int width, int height)

Draws a rectangle outline.

This is measured from the top left origin of the screen.

Parameters
  • x – X coordinate.

  • y – Y coordinate.

  • width – Width of rectangle.

  • height – Height of rectangle.

void gfx_Rectangle_NoClip(uint24_t x, uint8_t y, uint24_t width, uint8_t height)

Draws an unclipped rectangle outline.

This is measured from the top left origin of the screen. Performs faster than using gfx_Rectangle, but can cause corruption if used outside the bounds of the screen.

Parameters
  • x – X coordinate.

  • y – Y coordinate.

  • width – Width of rectangle.

  • height – Height of rectangle.

void gfx_FillRectangle(int x, int y, int width, int height)

Draws a filled rectangle.

This is measured from the top left origin of the screen.

Parameters
  • x – X coordinate.

  • y – Y coordinate.

  • width – Width of rectangle.

  • height – Height of rectangle.

void gfx_FillRectangle_NoClip(uint24_t x, uint8_t y, uint24_t width, uint8_t height)

Draws an unclipped filled rectangle.

This is measured from the top left origin of the screen. Performs faster than using gfx_FillRectangle, but can cause corruption if used outside the bounds of the screen.

Parameters
  • x – X coordinate

  • y – Y coordinate

  • width – Width of rectangle

  • height – Height of rectangle

void gfx_Circle(int x, int y, uint24_t radius)

Draws a circle outline.

This is measured from the top left origin of the screen.

Parameters
  • x – X coordinate.

  • y – Y coordinate.

  • radius – The radius of the circle.

void gfx_FillCircle(int x, int y, uint24_t radius)

Draws a filled circle.

This is measured from the top left origin of the screen.

Parameters
  • x – X coordinate.

  • y – Y coordinate.

  • radius – The radius of the circle.

void gfx_FillCircle_NoClip(uint24_t x, uint8_t y, uint24_t radius)

Draws an unclipped filled circle.

This is measured from the top left origin of the screen. Performs faster than using gfx_FillCircle, but can cause corruption if used outside the bounds of the screen.

Parameters
  • x – X coordinate.

  • y – Y coordinate.

  • radius – The radius of the circle.

void gfx_Polygon(const int *points, unsigned num_points)

Draws a clipped polygon outline.

Points are measured from the top left origin of the screen.

int points[6] = {
                   160,  1,  // (x0, y0)
                   1,  238,  // (x1, y1)
                   318,238,  // (x2, y2)
                 };
num_points = 3;
gfx_Polygon(points, num_points);

Parameters
  • points – Pointer to x and y pairs.

  • num_points – Number of x and y pairs.

void gfx_Polygon_NoClip(const int *points, unsigned num_points)

Draws an unclipped polygon outline.

Points are measured from the top left origin of the screen.

int points[6] = {
                   160,  1,  // (x0, y0)
                   1,  238,  // (x1, y1)
                   318,238,  // (x2, y2)
                 };
num_points = 3;
gfx_Polygon_NoClip(points, num_points)

Performs faster than gfx_Polygon, but can cause corruption if used outside the bounds of the screen.

Parameters
  • points – Pointer to x and y pairs

  • num_points – Number of x and y pairs

void gfx_FillTriangle(int x0, int y0, int x1, int y1, int x2, int y2)

Draws a clipped filled triangle.

Points are measured from the top left origin of the screen.

Parameters
  • x0 – First X coordinate.

  • y0 – First Y coordinate.

  • x1 – Second X coordinate.

  • y1 – Second Y coordinate.

  • x2 – Third X coordinate.

  • y2 – Third Y coordinate.

void gfx_FillTriangle_NoClip(int x0, int y0, int x1, int y1, int x2, int y2)

Draws a unclipped filled triangle.

Points are measured from the top left origin of the screen. Performs faster than gfx_Triangle, but can cause corruption if used outside the bounds of the screen.

Parameters
  • x0 – First X coordinate.

  • y0 – First Y coordinate.

  • x1 – Second X coordinate.

  • y1 – Second Y coordinate.

  • x2 – Third X coordinate.

  • y2 – Third Y coordinate.

void gfx_SetDraw(uint8_t location)

Forces all graphics routines draw location.

See

gfx_location_t.

Parameters

location – Location routines should draw to.

uint8_t gfx_GetDraw(void)

Gets the current drawing buffer.

See

gfx_location_t.

Returns

Location type enumeration.

void gfx_SwapDraw(void)

Swaps the roles of the screen and drawing buffers.

Does not wait for the old screen buffer to finish being displayed. Instead, the next invocation of a graphx drawing function will block, (pause program execution) waiting for this event. To block and wait explicitly, use gfx_Wait().

The LCD driver maintains its own screen buffer pointer for the duration of a refresh. The swap performed by this function will only be picked up at a point between refreshes.

Remark

In practice, this function should be invoked immediately after finishing drawing a frame to the drawing buffer, and invocation of the first graphx drawing function for the next frame should be scheduled as late as possible relative to non-drawing logic. Non-drawing logic can execute during time when a drawing function may otherwise block.

void gfx_Wait(void)

Waits for the screen buffer to finish being displayed after gfx_SwapDraw().

Remark

In practice, this function should not need to be invoked by user code. It should be invoked by custom drawing functions (as late as reasonably possible) before writing to the drawing buffer, gfx_vbuffer.

void gfx_Blit(gfx_location_t src)

Copies the input buffer to the opposite buffer.

No clipping is performed as it is a copy not a draw.

See

gfx_location_t

Parameters

src – drawing location to copy from.

void gfx_BlitLines(gfx_location_t src, uint8_t y_loc, uint8_t num_lines)

Copies lines from the input buffer to the opposite buffer.

No clipping is performed as it is a copy not a draw.

See

gfx_location_t.

Parameters
  • src – drawing location to copy from.

  • y_loc – Y Location to begin copying at.

  • num_lines – Number of lines to copy.

void gfx_BlitRectangle(gfx_location_t src, uint24_t x, uint8_t y, uint24_t width, uint24_t height)

Transfers a rectangle from the source graphics buffer to the opposite buffer.

No clipping is performed as it is a copy not a draw.

See

gfx_location_t.

Parameters
  • src – drawing location to copy from.

  • x – X coordinate.

  • y – Y coordinate.

  • width – Width of rectangle.

  • height – Height of rectangle.

void gfx_CopyRectangle(gfx_location_t src, gfx_location_t dst, uint24_t src_x, uint8_t src_y, uint24_t dst_x, uint8_t dst_y, uint24_t width, uint8_t height)

Copies a rectangular region between graphics buffers or to the same graphics buffer.

The behavior is undefined when the rectangles overlap. No clipping is performed as it is a copy not a draw.

See

gfx_location_t

Parameters
  • src – Graphics buffer to copy from.i

  • dst – Graphics buffer to copy to.

  • src_x – X coordinate on src.

  • src_y – Y coordinate on src.

  • dst_x – X coordinate on dst.

  • dst_y – Y coordinate on dst.

  • width – Width of rectangle.

  • height – Height of rectangle.

void gfx_SetTextScale(uint8_t width_scale, uint8_t height_scale)

Sets the scaling for text.

Scaling is performed by multiplying the width / height of the currently loaded text by the supplied scaling factors.

Values in the range from 1-5 are preferred.

Parameters
  • width_scale – Text width scaling

  • height_scale – Text height scaling

void gfx_PrintChar(const char c)

Prints a single character.

Outputs a character at the current cursor position.

Note

By default, no text clipping is performed. See gfx_SetTextConfig.

Parameters

c – Character to print

void gfx_PrintInt(int n, uint8_t length)

Prints a signed integer.

Outputs at the current cursor position. Pads the integer with leading zeros if necessary to satisfy the specified minimum length. For example, gfx_PrintInt(5,3) prints “005”.

Note

By default, no text clipping is performed. See gfx_SetTextConfig.

Note

length must be between 1 and 8, inclusive

Parameters
  • n – Integer to print.

  • length – Minimum number of characters to print.

void gfx_PrintUInt(unsigned int n, uint8_t length)

Prints an unsigned integer.

Outputs at the current cursor position. Pads the integer with leading zeros if necessary to satisfy the specified minimum length. For example, gfx_PrintUInt(5,3) prints “005”.

Note

By default, no text clipping is performed. See gfx_SetTextConfig.

Note

length must be between 1 and 8, inclusive

Parameters
  • n – Unsigned integer to print.

  • length – Minimum number of characters to print.

void gfx_PrintString(const char *string)

Prints a string.

Outputs a string at the current cursor position.

Note

By default, no text clipping is performed. See gfx_SetTextConfig.

Parameters

string – Pointer to string to print.

void gfx_PrintStringXY(const char *string, int x, int y)

Prints a string at a specific location.

Outputs a string at the supplied coordinates. Position is measured from top left origin of screen. This has the same effect as calling gfx_SetTextXY(x,y); then gfx_PrintString();

Note

By default, no text clipping is performed. See gfx_SetTextConfig.

Parameters
  • string – Pointer to string to print.

  • x – X coordinate.

  • y – Y coordinate.

int gfx_GetTextX(void)
Returns

The current text cursor X position.

int gfx_GetTextY(void)
Returns

The current text cursor Y position.

void gfx_SetTextXY(int x, int y)

Sets the text cursor X and Y positions.

Parameters
  • x – X coordinate

  • y – Y coordinate

void gfx_SetTextConfig(uint8_t config)

Sets the configuration for the text routines.

See

gfx_text_options_t

Note

Scaled text does not clip

Parameters

config – Set the options for the text mode.

uint8_t gfx_SetTextFGColor(uint8_t color)

Sets the text foreground color.

Note

Default text foreground color index: 0.

Note

Default text background color index is 255, so if you don’t change it and try to draw with color 255, nothing will happen. You can change this with gfx_SetTextTransparentColor(color).

Parameters

color – Color index to set.

Returns

Previous text foreground color index.

uint8_t gfx_SetTextBGColor(uint8_t color)

Sets the text background (highlight) color.

Note

Default text background color index: 255. (default transparent color)

Parameters

color – Color index to set.

Returns

Previous text background color index.

uint8_t gfx_SetTextTransparentColor(uint8_t color)

Sets the text transparency color.

Note

Default text transparency color index: 255.

Parameters

color – Color index to set.

Returns

Previous text transparency color index.

void gfx_Sprite(const gfx_sprite_t *sprite, int x, int y)

Draws a sprite.

Parameters
  • sprite – Pointer to an initialized sprite structure.

  • x – X coordinate.

  • y – Y coordinate.

void gfx_Sprite_NoClip(const gfx_sprite_t *sprite, uint24_t x, uint8_t y)

Draws an unclipped sprite.

Note

If you call the _NoClip version, ensure the sprite is drawn withing the region of the screen. Otherwise, you risk overwriting important data with your sprite.

Parameters
  • sprite – Pointer to an initialized sprite structure.

  • x – X coordinate.

  • y – Y coordinate.

void gfx_TransparentSprite(const gfx_sprite_t *sprite, int x, int y)

Draws a transparent sprite.

Parameters
  • sprite – Pointer to an initialized sprite structure.

  • x – X coordinate.

  • y – Y coordinate.

void gfx_TransparentSprite_NoClip(const gfx_sprite_t *sprite, uint24_t x, uint8_t y)

Draws an unclipped transparent sprite.

Parameters
  • sprite – Pointer to an initialized sprite structure.

  • x – X coordinate.

  • y – Y coordinate.

gfx_sprite_t *gfx_GetSprite(gfx_sprite_t *sprite_buffer, int x, int y)

Grabs the background behind a sprite.

This is useful for partial redraw.

Note

sprite_buffer must be pointing to a large enough buffer to hold (width * height + 2) number of bytes.

Parameters
  • sprite_buffer – Buffer used to store grabbed sprite.

  • x – X coordinate to grab sprite.

  • y – Y coordinate to grab sprite.

Returns

A pointer to sprite_buffer.

void gfx_ScaledSprite_NoClip(const gfx_sprite_t *sprite, uint24_t x, uint8_t y, uint8_t width_scale, uint8_t height_scale)

Scales an unclipped sprite.

Scaling factors must be greater than or equal to 1, and an integer factor. Sprites are scaled by multiplying the dimensions by the respective factors.

Note

Usable with gfx_GetSprite in order to create clipped versions.

Parameters
  • sprite – Pointer to an initialized sprite structure.

  • x – X coordinate.

  • y – Y coordinate.

  • width_scale – Width scaling factor.

  • height_scale – Height scaling factor.

void gfx_ScaledTransparentSprite_NoClip(const gfx_sprite_t *sprite, uint24_t x, uint8_t y, uint8_t width_scale, uint8_t height_scale)

Scales an unclipped transparent sprite.

Scaling factors must be greater than or equal to 1, and an integer factor. Sprites are scaled by multiplying the dimensions by the respective factors.

Note

Usable with gfx_GetSprite in order to create clipped versions.

Parameters
  • sprite – Pointer to an initialized sprite structure.

  • x – X coordinate.

  • y – Y coordinate.

  • width_scale – Width scaling factor.

  • height_scale – Height scaling factor.

uint8_t gfx_RotatedScaledTransparentSprite_NoClip(const gfx_sprite_t *sprite, uint24_t x, uint8_t y, uint8_t angle, uint8_t scale)

Fixed Rotation with scaling factor for sprites.

Note

A scale factor of 64 represents 100% scaling.

Warning

This routine only accepts square input sprites.

Parameters
  • sprite – Input sprite to rotate/scale.

  • x – X coordinate position.

  • y – Y coordinate position.

  • angle – 256 position angular integer.

  • scale – Scaling factor; range is about 1% to 400% scale.

Returns

The size of the sprite after scaling. This can be used for centering purposes.

uint8_t gfx_RotatedScaledSprite_NoClip(const gfx_sprite_t *sprite, uint24_t x, uint8_t y, uint8_t angle, uint8_t scale)

Fixed Rotation with scaling fator for sprites without transparency.

Note

A scale factor of 64 represents 100% scaling.

Warning

This routine only accepts square input sprites.

Parameters
  • sprite – Input sprite to rotate/scale.

  • x – X coordinate position.

  • y – Y coordinate position.

  • angle – 256 position angular integer.

  • scale – Scaling factor; range is about 1% to 400% scale. 64 represents 100% scaling.

Returns

The size of the sprite after scaling. This can be used for centering purposes.

gfx_sprite_t *gfx_FlipSpriteX(const gfx_sprite_t *sprite_in, gfx_sprite_t *sprite_out)

Flips a sprite along the X axis.

Note

sprite_in and sprite_out cannot be the same. Ensure sprite_out is allocated.

Parameters
  • sprite_in – Input sprite to flip.

  • sprite_out – Pointer to where flipped sprite will be stored.

Returns

A pointer to sprite_out.

gfx_sprite_t *gfx_FlipSpriteY(const gfx_sprite_t *sprite_in, gfx_sprite_t *sprite_out)

Flips a sprite along the Y axis.

Note

sprite_in and sprite_out cannot be the same. Ensure sprite_out is allocated.

Parameters
  • sprite_in – Input sprite to flip.

  • sprite_out – Pointer to where flipped sprite will be stored.

Returns

A pointer to sprite_out.

gfx_sprite_t *gfx_RotateSpriteC(const gfx_sprite_t *sprite_in, gfx_sprite_t *sprite_out)

Rotates a sprite 90 degrees clockwise.

Note

sprite_in and sprite_out cannot be the same. Ensure sprite_out is allocated.

Parameters
  • sprite_in – Input sprite to rotate.

  • sprite_out – Pointer to where rotated sprite will be stored.

Returns

A pointer to sprite_out.

gfx_sprite_t *gfx_RotateSpriteCC(const gfx_sprite_t *sprite_in, gfx_sprite_t *sprite_out)

Rotates a sprite 90 degrees counter clockwise.

Note

sprite_in and sprite_out cannot be the same. Ensure sprite_out is allocated.

Parameters
  • sprite_in – Input sprite to rotate.

  • sprite_out – Pointer to where rotated sprite will be stored.

Returns

A pointer to sprite_out.

gfx_sprite_t *gfx_RotateSpriteHalf(const gfx_sprite_t *sprite_in, gfx_sprite_t *sprite_out)

Rotates a sprite 180 degrees.

Note

sprite_in and sprite_out cannot be the same. Ensure sprite_out is allocated.

Parameters
  • sprite_in – Input sprite to rotate.

  • sprite_out – Pointer to where rotated sprite will be stored.

Returns

A pointer to sprite_out.

gfx_sprite_t *gfx_ScaleSprite(const gfx_sprite_t *sprite_in, gfx_sprite_t *sprite_out)

Resizes a sprite to new dimensions.

Place new image dimensions in sprite_out; i.e. sprite_out->width = 80; sprite_out->height = 20.

Note

sprite_in and sprite_out cannot be the same. Ensure sprite_out is allocated.

Parameters
  • sprite_in – Input sprite to scale.

  • sprite_out – Pointer to where scaled sprite will be stored.

Returns

A pointer to sprite_out.

gfx_sprite_t *gfx_RotateScaleSprite(const gfx_sprite_t *sprite_in, gfx_sprite_t *sprite_out, uint8_t angle, uint8_t scale)

Fixed Rotation with scaling factor for sprites.

The output sprite is updated with the dimensions required for the implemented scaling factor. You must make sure that sprite_out has enough memory to store the needed output sprite. This can be found with the following formula: size = (max_scale / 64) * width * height + 2;

Note

A scale factor of 64 represents 100% scaling.

Note

sprite_in and sprite_out cannot be the same. Ensure sprite_out is allocated.

Warning

This routine only accepts square input sprites.

Parameters
  • sprite_in – Input sprite to rotate/scale.

  • sprite_out – Pointer to where rotated/scaled sprite will be stored.

  • angle – 256 position angular integer.

  • scale – Scaling factor; range is about 1% to 400% scale.

Returns

A pointer to sprite_out.

gfx_sprite_t *gfx_GetSpriteChar(char c)

Creates a temporary character sprite.

This may be useful for performing rotations and other. operations on characters. The sprite returned is always 8x8 pixels.

Parameters

c – Character to generate.

Returns

A sprite of the character data.

uint8_t *gfx_SetFontData(const uint8_t *data)

Sets the font’s character data.

Fonts can be created manually or and exported to a C-style format using 8x8 Pixel ROM Font Editor: (https://www.min.at/prinz/o/software/pixelfont/#download)

Note

Format of font data is 8 bytes horizontally aligned.

Parameters

data – Pointer to formatted 8x8 pixel font.

Returns

Pointer to previous font data.

uint8_t *gfx_SetCharData(uint8_t index, const uint8_t *data)

Sets the font data for a specific character.

See

gfx_SetFontData.

Note

Format of font data is 8 bytes horizontally aligned.

Parameters
  • index – Character index to modify. (if using default font, values range from 0-127, custom font can have indexes 0-255).

  • data – Pointer to formatted 8x8 pixel font.

Returns

Pointer to current character data if data is NULL, otherwise a pointer to next character data.

void gfx_SetFontSpacing(const uint8_t *spacing)

Sets the font spacing for each character.

Format is an array of bytes, where each index in the array corresponds to the character’s numerical value.

Parameters

spacing – Pointer to array of character spacing.

uint8_t gfx_SetFontHeight(uint8_t height)

Sets the height in pixels of each character.

The default value is 8 pixels.

Parameters

height – New font height in pixels.

Returns

Previous height of font in pixels.

void gfx_SetMonospaceFont(uint8_t spacing)

Sets a monospaced font width.

Note

To disable monospaced font, set to 0.

Parameters

spacing – Distance between characters.

unsigned int gfx_GetStringWidth(const char *string)

Gets the pixel width of the given string.

Note

Takes into account monospacing flag.

Parameters

string – Pointer to a string.

unsigned int gfx_GetCharWidth(const char c)

Gets the pixel width of the given character.

Note

Takes into account monospacing flag.

Parameters

c – Character to get width of.

Returns

Width in pixels of character.

void gfx_SetClipRegion(int xmin, int ymin, int xmax, int ymax)

Sets the dimensions of the drawing window for all clipped routines.

Parameters
  • xmin – Minimum x coordinate, inclusive (default 0).

  • ymin – Minimum y coordinate, inclusive (default 0).

  • xmax – Maximum x coordinate, exclusive (default 320).

  • ymax – Maximum y coordinate, exclusive (default 240).

bool gfx_GetClipRegion(gfx_region_t *region)

Clips a region to fit within the drawing window using Cohen-Sutherland.

Returns

False if offscreen, true if onscreen.

void gfx_ShiftDown(uint8_t pixels)

Shifts/Slides the drawing window down.

Note

Remnant data after a shift is undefined.

Parameters

pixels – Number of pixels to shift.

void gfx_ShiftUp(uint8_t pixels)

Shifts/Slides the drawing window up.

Note

Remnant data after a shift is undefined.

Parameters

pixels – Number of pixels to shift.

void gfx_ShiftLeft(uint24_t pixels)

Shifts/Slides the drawing window left.

Note

Remnant data after a shift is undefined.

Parameters

pixels – Number of pixels to shift.

void gfx_ShiftRight(uint24_t pixels)

Shifts/Slides the drawing window right.

Note

Remnant data after a shift is undefined.

Parameters

pixels – Number of pixels to shift.

uint16_t gfx_Lighten(uint16_t color, uint8_t amount)

Lightens a given 1555 color; useful for palette color conversions.

Note

0 returns full white, 255 returns original color.

Parameters
  • color – Original color input in 1555 format.

  • amount – Amount to lighten by.

Returns

Lightened color.

uint16_t gfx_Darken(uint16_t color, uint8_t amount)

Darkens a given 1555 color; useful for palette color conversions.

Note

0 returns full black, 255 returns original color.

Parameters
  • color – Original color input in 1555 format.

  • amount – Amount to darken by.

Returns

Darkened color.

void gfx_FloodFill(unsigned int x, uint8_t y, uint8_t color)

Fills an area with a color.

Note

This routine performs clipping to stay within the window, but you must ensure it starts in the window.

Parameters
  • x – X coordinate to begin filling at.

  • y – Y coordinate to begin filling at.

  • color – New color to fill with.

void gfx_RLETSprite(const gfx_rletsprite_t *sprite, int x, int y)

Draws a sprite with RLE transparency.

Parameters
  • sprite – sprite to draw.

  • x – X coordinate.

  • y – Y coordinate.

void gfx_RLETSprite_NoClip(const gfx_rletsprite_t *sprite, uint24_t x, uint8_t y)

Draws an unclipped sprite with RLE transparency.

Parameters
  • sprite – Sprite to draw.

  • x – X coordinate.

  • y – Y coordinate.

gfx_sprite_t *gfx_ConvertFromRLETSprite(const gfx_rletsprite_t *sprite_in, gfx_sprite_t *sprite_out)

Converts a sprite with RLE transparency to a sprite with normal transparency.

Width and height will be set in the converted sprite.

The transparent color index in the converted sprite is controlled by gfx_SetTransparentColor().

Attention

The output sprite must have been allocated with a large enough data field to hold the converted sprite data, which will be width * height bytes large.

See

gfx_ConvertMallocRLETSprite.

See

gfx_ConvertToRLETSprite.

Parameters
  • sprite_in[in] Input sprite with RLE transparency.

  • sprite_out[out] Converted sprite with normal transparency.

Returns

The converted sprite.

gfx_rletsprite_t *gfx_ConvertToRLETSprite(const gfx_sprite_t *sprite_in, gfx_rletsprite_t *sprite_out)

Converts a sprite with normal transparency to a sprite with RLE transparency.

Width and height will be set in the converted sprite.

The transparent color index in the input sprite is controlled by gfx_SetTransparentColor().

Attention

The output sprite must have been allocated with a large enough data field to hold the converted sprite data; see gfx_AllocRLETSprite() for information.

See

gfx_ConvertFromRLETSprite.

Note

To avoid needing to predict the output size and risking either the prediction being too high and wasting space, or being too low and corrupting memory, gfx_ConvertMallocRLETSprite() can be used instead to allocate the exact amount of necessary space for the converted sprite.

Parameters
  • sprite_in[in] Input sprite with normal transparency.

  • sprite_out[out] Converted sprite with RLE transparency.

Returns

The converted sprite.

gfx_rletsprite_t *gfx_ConvertToNewRLETSprite(const gfx_sprite_t *sprite_in, void *(*malloc_routine)(size_t))

Converts a sprite with normal transparency to a sprite with RLE transparency, allocating the exact amount of necessary space for the converted sprite.

Allocates the memory with malloc_routine. Width and height will be set in the converted sprite. Returns NULL upon allocation failure.

The transparent color index in the input sprite is controlled by gfx_SetTransparentColor().

Remark

If using malloc as the malloc_routine, gfx_ConvertMallocRLETSprite() can be used as a shortcut.

Remark

A gfx_sprite_t can be converted into an appropriately large, already-allocated gfx_rletsprite_t using gfx_ConvertToRLETSprite().

See

gfx_ConvertFromRLETSprite.

Parameters
  • sprite_in – Input sprite with normal transparency.

  • malloc_routine – Malloc implementation to use.

Returns

A newly allocated converted sprite with RLE transparency.

struct gfx_sprite_t
#include <graphx.h>

Sprite (image) type.

Whether or not a sprite includes transparency is not explicitly encoded, and is determined only by usage. If used with transparency, transparent pixels are those with a certain color index, which can be set with gfx_SetTransparentColor().

Attention

Displaying a gfx_rletsprite_t (which includes transparency) is significantly faster than displaying a gfx_sprite_t with transparency, and should be preferred. However, gfx_rletsprite_t does not support transformations, such as flipping and rotation. Such transformations can be applied to a gfx_sprite_t, which can then be converted to a gfx_rletsprite_t for faster display using gfx_ConvertToNewRLETSprite() or gfx_ConvertToRLETSprite().

Remark

Create at compile-time with a tool like convimg. Create at runtime (with uninitialized data) with gfx_MallocSprite(), gfx_UninitedSprite(), or gfx_TempSprite().

Public Members

uint8_t width

Width of the image.

uint8_t height

Height of the image.

uint8_t data[]

Image data array.

struct gfx_rletsprite_t
#include <graphx.h>

Sprite (image) type with RLE transparency.

Attention

Displaying a gfx_rletsprite_t (which includes transparency) is significantly faster than displaying a gfx_sprite_t with transparency, and should be preferred. However, gfx_rletsprite_t does not support transformations, such as flipping and rotation. Such transformations can be applied to a gfx_sprite_t, which can then be converted to a gfx_rletsprite_t for faster display using gfx_ConvertToNewRLETSprite() or gfx_ConvertToRLETSprite().

Remark

Create at compile-time with a tool like convimg.

Public Members

uint8_t width

Width of the image.

uint8_t height

Height of the image.

uint8_t data[]

Image data array.

struct gfx_point_t
#include <graphx.h>

A structure for working with 2D points.

Public Members

int x

x point.

int y

y point.

struct gfx_region_t
#include <graphx.h>

Defines a rectangular graphics region.

See

gfx_GetClipRegion

Public Members

int xmin

Minimum x coordinate.

int ymin

Minimum y coordinate.

int xmax

Maximum x coordinate.

int ymax

Maximum y coordinate.

struct gfx_tilemap_t
#include <graphx.h>

Defines tilemap structure.

See

gfx_Tilemap

Public Members

uint8_t *map

Pointer to tilemap array.

gfx_sprite_t **tiles

Pointer to tileset sprites for the tilemap.

uint8_t tile_height

Individual tile height.

uint8_t tile_width

Individual tile width.

uint8_t draw_height

Number of tilemap rows to draw.

uint8_t draw_width

Number of tilemap columns to draw.

uint8_t type_width

Tile type height.

See

gfx_tilemap_type_t.

uint8_t type_height

Tile type width.

See

gfx_tilemap_type_t.

uint8_t height

Total number of rows in the tilemap.

uint8_t width

Total number of columns in the tilemap.

uint8_t y_loc

Y pixel location on the screen for the tilemap.

uint24_t x_loc

X pixel location on the screen for the tilemap.